India

India

Background

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world’s oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. – which reached its zenith under ASHOKA – united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states – India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India’s nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India’s financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India’s emergence as a regional and global power.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates:
20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references:
Asia

Area:
total: 3,287,263 sq km
country comparison to the world: 7
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km

Area – comparative:
Area comparison map:

Land boundaries:
total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline:
7,000 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain:
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources:
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 47.87%
permanent crops: 3.74%
other: 48.39% (2011)

Irrigated land:
663,340 sq km (2008)

Total renewable water resources:
1,911 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 761 cu km/yr (7%/2%/90%)
per capita: 613 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards:
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

Environment – current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note:
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal


People & Society

Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups:
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)

Languages:
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)

Religions:
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)

Population:
1,236,344,631 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.5% (male 187,016,401/female 165,048,695)
15-24 years: 18.1% (male 118,696,540/female 105,342,764)
25-54 years: 40.6% (male 258,202,535/female 243,293,143)
55-64 years: 5.8% (male 43,625,668/female 43,175,111)
65 years and over: 5.7% (male 34,133,175/female 37,810,599) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 51.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 43.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 8.1 %
potential support ratio: 12.3 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total: 27 years
male: 26.4 years
female: 27.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.25% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Birth rate:
19.89 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

Death rate:
7.35 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118

Net migration rate:
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Urbanization:
urban population: 31.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:
NEW DELHI (capital) 22.654 million; Mumbai 19.744 million; Kolkata 14.402 million; Chennai 8.784 million; Bangalore 8.614 million; Hyderabad 7.837 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:
19.9 (2005-06 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 55

Infant mortality rate:
total: 43.19 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 50
male: 41.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.8 years
country comparison to the world: 163
male: 66.68 years
female: 69.06 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.51 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
54.8% (2007/08)

Health expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 167

Physicians density:
0.65 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.3% of population
rural: 89.5% of population
total: 91.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.7% of population
rural: 10.5% of population
total: 8.4% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 59.7% of population
rural: 23.9% of population
total: 35.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 40.3% of population
rural: 76.1% of population
total: 64.9% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
2.085 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

HIV/AIDS – deaths:
135,500 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
1.9% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 184

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
43.5% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 2

Education expenditures:
3.2% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 134

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.8%
male: 75.2%
female: 50.8% (2006 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2011)

Child labor – children ages 5-14:
total number: 26,965,074
percentage: 12 % (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 10.7%
country comparison to the world: 107
male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012)


Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat

Government type:
federal republic

Capital:
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi

Independence:
15 August 1947 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)

Constitution:
previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2013 (2013)

Legal system:
common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
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elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held in July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held in August 2012 (next to be held in August 2017); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections being held April – May 2014)
election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote – Pranab MUKHERJEE 69.31%, Purno SANGMA – 30.69%

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of 245 seats up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder chosen in staggered elections by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People’s Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
elections: People’s Assembly – last held April-May 2014 in 9 phases; (next election must be held by May 2019)
election results: People’s Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA, ; seats by party – BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, independents 3, other 31

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices); note – parliament approved an additional 5 judges in 2008
note Рin mid-2011 India’s Cabinet approved the program, National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform, to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court

Political parties and leaders:
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India or CPI [Suravaram Sudhakar REDDY, Secretary-General]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK [M.KARUNANIDHI]
Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Rashtriya Lok Dal or RLD [Ajit SINGH]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
YSR Congress(YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]
note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (religious organization)
India Against Corruption [Anna HAZARE]
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization)
other:
numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations
hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level
various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy

International organization participation:
ABEDA, ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Subrahmanyam JAISHANKAR (since 10 March 2014)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note – Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL (since 19 April 2012)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad; Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

National symbol(s):
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; the Bengal tiger is the national animal; the lotus is the national flower

National anthem:
name: “Jana-Gana-Mana” (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)


Economy

Economy – overview:
India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country’s growth, which averaged under 7% per year from 1997 to 2011. India’s diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but, services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India’s output with less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. India’s economic growth began slowing in 2011 because of a decline in investment, caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government’s commitment to further economic reforms and about the global situation. In late 2012, the Indian Government announced additional reforms and deficit reduction measures, including allowing higher levels of foreign participation in direct investment in the economy. The outlook for India’s long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, India has many challenges that it has yet to fully address, including poverty, corruption, violence and discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly-targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration. Growth in 2013 fell to a decade low, as India’s economic leaders struggled to improve the country’s wide fiscal and current account deficits. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries, led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee. However, investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.99 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$4.833 trillion (2012 est.)
$4.63 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.67 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
3.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
5.1% (2012 est.)
7.5% (2011 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$4,000 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$3,900 (2012 est.)
$3,800 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
33.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
28.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 56.4%
government consumption: 12.4%
investment in fixed capital: 29.6%
investment in inventories: 8.2%
exports of goods and services: 25.2%
imports of goods and services: -31.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 17.4%
industry: 25.8%
services: 56.9% (2013 est.)

Agriculture – products:
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish

Industries:
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152

Labor force:
487.3 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 20%
services: 31% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
8.5% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
29.8% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2005)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:
36.8 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 80
37.8 (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $181.3 billion
expenditures: $281.6 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
10.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175

Public debt:
51.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
51.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
1 April – 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
9.7% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
7.75% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
8% (31 December 2010 est.)
note: this is the Indian central bank’s policy rate – the repurchase rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.6% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
10.63% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$303.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$317.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.376 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.396 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.379 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
$1.401 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.263 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.015 trillion (31 December 2011)
$1.616 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:
-$74.79 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
-$91.47 billion (2012 est.)

Exports:
$313.2 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
$296.8 billion (2012 est.)

Exports – commodities:
petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel

Exports – partners:
UAE 12.3%, US 12.2%, China 5%, Singapore 4.9%, Hong Kong 4.1% (2012)

Imports:
$467.5 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$488.9 billion (2012 est.)

Imports – commodities:
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, fertilizer, iron and steel, chemicals

Imports – partners:
China 10.7%, UAE 7.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, Switzerland 6.2%, US 5.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$295 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$296 billion (28 December 2012 est.)

Debt – external:
$412.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$378.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
$310 billion (30 November 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$225.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$120.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$118.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar –
58.68 (2013 est.)
53.437 (2012 est.)
45.726 (2010 est.)
48.405 (2009)
43.319 (2008)


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