Nigeria

Nigeria

Background

British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa’s most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country’s history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. In January 2014, Nigeria assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term.

Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references:
Africa

Area:
total: 923,768 sq km
country comparison to the world: 32
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Area – comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline:
853 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain:
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 38.97%
permanent crops: 3.46%
other: 57.57% (2011)

Irrigated land:
2,932 sq km (2004)

Total renewable water resources:
286.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 13.11 cu km/yr (31%/15%/54%)
per capita: 89.21 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; flooding

Environment – current issues:
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution – water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note:
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea


People & Society

Nationality:
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups:
Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Languages:
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Religions:
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Population:
177,155,754
country comparison to the world: 8
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.2% (male 39,151,304/female 37,353,737)
15-24 years: 19.3% (male 17,486,117/female 16,732,533)
25-54 years: 30.5% (male 27,697,644/female 26,285,816)
55-64 years: 3.1% (male 3,393,631/female 3,571,301)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,621,845/female 2,861,826) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 89.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 84 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.3 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total: 18.2 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.3 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.47% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Birth rate:
38.03 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Death rate:
13.16 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Net migration rate:
-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Urbanization:
urban population: 49.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.75% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:
Lagos 11.223 million; Kano 3.375 million; Ibadan 2.949 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.153 million; Port Harcourt 1.894 million; Kaduna 1.524 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:
20.9
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
630 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 11

Infant mortality rate:
total: 74.09 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 10
male: 79.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 68.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.62 years
country comparison to the world: 212
male: 51.63 years
female: 53.66 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.25 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
14.1% (2011)

Health expenditures:
5.3% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 127

Physicians density:
0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
0.53 beds/1,000 population (2004)

Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 75.1% of population
rural: 47.3% of population
total: 61.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 24.9% of population
rural: 52.7% of population
total: 38.9% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 33.2% of population
rural: 28.1% of population
total: 30.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 66.8% of population
rural: 71.9% of population
total: 69.4% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
3.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
3,426,600 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

HIV/AIDS – deaths:
239,700 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
6.5% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 146

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
24.4% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 26

Education expenditures:
NA

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.3%
male: 72.1%
female: 50.4% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2005)

Child labor – children ages 5-14:
total number: 11,396,823
percentage: 29 % (2007 est.)


Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria

Government type:
federal republic

Capital:
name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Independence:
1 October 1960 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)

Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended 2010 (2010)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government; JONATHAN assumed the presidency on 5 May 2010 following the death of President YAR’ADUA; JONATHAN was elected president on 16 April 2011
head of government: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be held in February 2015)
election results: Goodluck JONATHAN elected president; percent of vote – Goodluck JONATHAN 58.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI 32.0%, Nuhu RIBADU 5.4%, Ibrahim SHEKARAU 2.4%, other 1.3%

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate – last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in February 2015); House of Representatives – last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in February 2015)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PDP 73, ACN 17, ANPP 7, CPC 6, LP 4, other 2; House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PDP 205, ACN 69, CPC 36, ANPP 28, LP 9, APGA 6, ACC 5, other 2; note – due to logistical problems elections in a number of constituencies were held on 26 April 2011

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system

Political parties and leaders:
Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE]
All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya C. ONU]
All Progressives Congress [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE, acting]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Congress for Progressive Change or CPC [Tony MOMOH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party [Chief Dan NWANYANWU]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Adamu MU’AZU]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
the press
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adebowale Ibidapo ADEFUYE (since 26 March 2010)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James F. ENTWISTLE (since 28 October 2013)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity

National symbol(s):
eagle

National anthem:
name: “Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria’s Call Obey”


Economy

Economy – overview:
Following an April 2014 statistical “rebasing” exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa’s largest economy, with 2013 GDP estimated at US$ 502 billion. Oil has been a dominant source of government revenues since the 1970s. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria’s oil production contracted in 2012 and 2013. Nevertheless, the Nigerian economy has continued to grow at a rapid 6-8% per annum (pre-rebasing), driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services, and the medium-term outlook for Nigeria is good, assuming oil output stabilizes and oil prices remain strong. Fiscal authorities pursued countercyclical policies in 2011-2013, significantly reducing the budget deficit. Monetary policy has also been responsive and effective. Following the 2008-9 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels – over 62% of Nigeria’s 170 million people live in extreme poverty. President JONATHAN has established an economic team that includes experienced and reputable members and has announced plans to increase transparency, continue to diversify production, and further improve fiscal management. The government is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$478.5 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$450.4 billion (2012 est.)
$422.6 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$502 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
6.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
6.6% (2012 est.)
7.4% (2011 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$2,800 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
$2,700 (2012 est.)
$2,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
15.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
15.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 9.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.9%
imports of goods and services: -22.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 43%
services: 26% (2012 est.)

Agriculture – products:
cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish

Industries:
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Labor force:
51.53 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
23.9% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
4.9% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:
70% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:
43.7 (2003)
country comparison to the world: 47
50.6 (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $23.85 billion
expenditures: $31.51 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
4.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Public debt:
19.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
17.9% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
12.2% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
6% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
15.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
16.79% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$46.48 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$44.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$98.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$96.34 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$93.46 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$93.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$56.39 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
$39.27 billion (31 December 2011)
$50.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:
$16.16 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
$20.35 billion (2012 est.)

Exports:
$93.55 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$95.68 billion (2012 est.)

Exports – commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber

Exports – partners:
US 16.8%, India 11.5%, Netherlands 8.6%, Spain 7.8%, Brazil 7.6%, UK 5.1%, Germany 4.9%, Japan 4.1%, France 4.1% (2012)

Imports:
$55.98 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$53.36 billion (2012 est.)

Imports – commodities:
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

Imports – partners:
China 18.3%, US 10.1%, India 5.5% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$47.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$46.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt – external:
$15.73 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
$13.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
$84.56 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$76.75 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$9.212 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
$7.444 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
nairas (NGN) per US dollar –
156.8 (2013 est.)
156.81 (2012 est.)
150.3 (2010 est.)
148.9 (2009)
117.8 (2008)


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