Philippines

Philippines

Background

The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a “people power” movement in Manila (“EDSA 1”) forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA’s stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another “people power” movement (“EDSA 2”) demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government’s Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and ongoing peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People’s Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial and maritime claims in the South China Sea.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 122 00 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 300,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 73
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km

Area – comparative:
Area comparison map:

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
36,289 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate:
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 17.33%
other: 64.67% (2011)

Irrigated land:
18,790 sq km (2006)

Total renewable water resources:
479 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 81.56 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
per capita: 859.9 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms each year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Taal (elev. 311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (elev. 2,462 m), the country’s most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo and Ragang

Environment – current issues:
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography – note:
the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia’s main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait


People & Society

Nationality:
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups:
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

Languages:
Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects – Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

Religions:
Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni
Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)

Population:
107,668,231 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.7% (male 18,493,668/female 17,753,359)
15-24 years: 19% (male 10,416,358/female 10,044,724)
25-54 years: 37% (male 20,031,638/female 19,796,545)
55-64 years: 4.5% (male 2,882,719/female 3,372,485)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 2,103,596/female 2,773,139) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 60.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 54.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total: 23.5 years
male: 23 years
female: 24 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.81% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Birth rate:
24.24 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Death rate:
4.92 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Net migration rate:
-1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Urbanization:
urban population: 48.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.16% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:
MANILA (capital) 11.862 million; Davao 1.565 million; Cebu City 855,000; Zamboanga 884,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:
23.1
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
99 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 74

Infant mortality rate:
total: 17.64 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 99
male: 19.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.48 years
country comparison to the world: 134
male: 69.52 years
female: 75.59 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.06 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
48.9% (2011)

Health expenditures:
4.1% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 159

Physicians density:
1.15 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density:
1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 92.7% of population
rural: 92.1% of population
total: 92.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 7.9% of population
total: 7.6% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 79.2% of population
rural: 69.3% of population
total: 74.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 20.8% of population
rural: 30.7% of population
total: 25.8% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
14,800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

HIV/AIDS – deaths:
300 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2013)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
6.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 148

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
20.2% (2011)
country comparison to the world: 31

Education expenditures:
2.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 149

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 95%
female: 95.8% (2008 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 16.3%
country comparison to the world: 79
male: 15.2%
female: 18.3% (2011)


Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 36 N, 120 58 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
80 provinces and 39 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Davao, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, San Juan, Santiago, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga (2012)

Independence:
12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note – 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US

Constitution:
several previous; latest ratified 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987 (2013)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil, common, Islamic, and customary law

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010); Vice President Jejomar BINAY (since 30 June 2010); note – president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election held on 10 May 2010 (next election to be held in May 2016)
election results: Benigno AQUINO elected president; percent of vote – Benigno AQUINO 42.1%, Joseph ESTRADA 26.3%, seven others 31.6%; Jejomar BINAY elected vice president; percent of vote Jejomar BINAY 41.6%, Manuel ROXAS 39.6%, six others 18.8%

Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats – one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan (287 seats – 230 members in one tier representing districts and 57 sectoral party-list members in a second tier representing special minorities elected on the basis of one seat for every 2% of the total vote but with each party limited to three seats); a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other tier; all House members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms
note: the constitution limits the House of Representatives to 250 members; the number of members allowed was increased, however, through legislation when in April 2009 the Philippine Supreme Court ruled that additional party members could sit in the House of Representatives if they received the required number of votes
elections: Senate – elections last held on 13 May 2013 (next to be held in May 2016); House of Representatives – elections last held on 13 May 2013 (next to be held in May 2016)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party for 2013 election – UNA 26.94%, NP 15.3%, LP 11.32%, NPC 10.15%, LDP 5.38%, PDP-Laban 4.95%, others 9.72%, independents 16.24%; seats by party after 2013 election – UNA 5, NP 5, LP 4, Lakas 2, NPC 2, LDP 1, PDP-Laban 1, PRP 1, independents 3; House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – LP 38.3%, NPC 17.4%, UNA 11.4%, NUP 8.7%, NP 8.5%, Lakas 5.3%, independents 6.0%, others 4.4%; seats by party – LP 110, NPC 43, NUP 24, NP 17, Lakas 14, UNA 8, independents 6, others 12; party-list 57

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 14 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council, a constitutionally-created, 6-member body that recommends Supreme Court nominees; justices serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; Sandiganbayan (special court for corruption cases of government officials); Court of Tax Appeals; regional, metropolitan, and municipal trial courts; sharia courts

Political parties and leaders:
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]
Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Manuel “Mar” ROXAS]
Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]
Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel “Manny” VILLAR]
Nationalist People’s Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]
PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]
People’s Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]
Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]
note: United Nationalist Alliance or [UNA] – PDP-Laban and PMP coalition for the 2013 election

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]
Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jose L. CUISIA Jr. (since 7 April 2011)
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip S. GOLDBERG (since 21 November 2013)
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 1000
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2017

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red; a white equilateral triangle is based on the hoist side; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star; blue stands for peace and justice, red symbolizes courage, the white equal-sided triangle represents equality; the rays recall the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain, while the stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897
note: in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

National symbol(s):
Philippine eagle

National anthem:
name: “Lupang Hinirang” (Chosen Land)


Economy

Economy – overview:
The economy has weathered global economic and financial downturns better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four- to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a rapidly expanding business process outsourcing industry. The current account balance had recorded consecutive surpluses since 2003; international reserves are at record highs; the banking system is stable; and the stock market was Asia’s second best-performer in 2012. Efforts to improve tax administration and expenditure management have helped ease the Philippines’ tight fiscal situation and reduce high debt levels. The Philippines has received several credit rating upgrades on its sovereign debt, and has had little difficulty tapping domestic and international markets to finance its deficits. Economic growth in the Philippines averaged 4.5% during the MACAPAGAL-ARROYO administration, but poverty worsened during her term. Growth has accelerated under the AQUINO government, but with limited progress thus far in bringing down unemployment, which hovers around 7%, and improving the quality of jobs. Underemployment is nearly 20% and more than 40% of the employed are estimated to be working in the informal sector. The AQUINO administration has been working to boost the budgets for education, health, cash transfers to the poor, and other social spending programs, and is relying on the private sector to help fund major infrastructure projects under its Public-Private Partnership program. Long term challenges include reforming governance and the judicial system, building infrastructure, improving regulatory predictability, and the ease of doing business, attracting higher levels of local and foreign investments. The Philippine Constitution and the other laws continue to restrict foreign ownership in important activities/sectors (such as land ownership and public utilities).

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$454.3 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$425.3 billion (2012 est.)
$398.2 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$272.2 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
6.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
6.8% (2012 est.)
3.6% (2011 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$4,700 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
$4,400 (2012 est.)
$4,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
22.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
21.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
23.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 72.6%
government consumption: 11.5%
investment in fixed capital: 20.2%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 28.3%
imports of goods and services: -32.4%
(2013 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 11.2%
industry: 31.6%
services: 57.2% (2013 est.)

Agriculture – products:
sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish

Industries:
electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:
9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Labor force:
41.33 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 15%
services: 53% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
7.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
7% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
26.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 33.6% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:
44.8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
46.6 (2003)

Budget:

revenues: $38.88 billion
expenditures: $43.89 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
14.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-1.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Public debt:
50.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
51.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover debt issued by the national government, and excludes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by social security institutions, government-owned and controlled corporations, the Central Bank, and local government units

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
3.2% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5.3% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
5.6% (31 December 2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
5.68% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$43.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
$39.01 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$137.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
$121.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$150.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$129.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$266.3 billion (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 30
$198.4 billion (31 December 2011)
$202.2 billion (31 December 2010)

Current account balance:
$7.512 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$7.126 billion (2012 est.)

Exports:

$47.45 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
$46.28 billion (2012 est.)

Exports – commodities:
semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits

Exports – partners:

Japan 19%, US 14.2%, China 11.8%, Singapore 9.3%, Hong Kong 9.2%, South Korea 5.5%, Thailand 4.7% (2012)

Imports:
$63.91 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$61.49 billion (2012 est.)

Imports – commodities:
electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic

Imports – partners:
US 11.5%, China 10.8%, Japan 10.4%, South Korea 7.3%, Singapore 7.1%, Thailand 5.6%, Saudi Arabia 5.6%, Indonesia 4.4%, Malaysia 4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$85.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$83.83 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt – external:
$72.81 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$NA (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
$33.28 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$30.38 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$9.435 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$8.435 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar –
42.69 (2013 est.)
42.229 (2012 est.)
45.11 (2010 est.)
47.68 (2009)
44.439 (2008)


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